NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 1 From the Beginning of Time

Question 1. What do you know about Java men? Why did scientists call them “The Erect Ape Men”?
Answer: The remains of Java men were first discovered by a Dutch surgeon in Java. It included-a skull, a thigh bone and two teeth. The study of these remains depicts that the Java was half ape and half man. It is because his head (Java man’s head) was set forward of the neck. The Java men were also called “The Erect Ape Men” by the scientists because they could walk erect.

Question 2. Who were Hominoids? When did they come into existence? Write their two unique characteristics.
Answer:

  • Hominoids were the subgroup of primates.
  • They came into existence about 24 mya.

Characteristics

  • They had smaller brain.
  • They were unable to walk erect.

Question 3. Name two most important genus of Hominids. How they are different from each other?
Answer: Two most important genus of Hominids are, Australopithecus and Homo.
The major differences between them can be identified by the size of their brain, jaws and teeth. It may be summed up as:

  • Australopithecus have a smaller brain as compared to Homo.
  • Australopithecus have also larger jaws and teeth as compared to Homo.

Question 4. When and where do we get earliest evidence of bipedalism? What are the benefits of bipedalism? (HOTS)
Answer: We get the earliest evidence of bipedalism from Laetoli Tanzania. They are also obtained from Hadar, Ethiopia. They are as early as dated back to 3.6 mya.
Benefits of Bipedalism

  • Bipedalism helped early men to see objects from far off distance.
  • It helped themselves in protecting from animals.
  • It became easier to distinguish them from others quadalism (Movement of a quadruped).
  • Walk erect freed his two arms to carry out different tasks.

Question 5. What do you know about Replacement and Regional Continuity Models?
Answer: The Replacement Model supports the view that the modem human beings originated in a single region, i.e. Africa. In support of this view, most of the scholars tried to correlate the anatomical and genetic similarity of modern humans. It indicates that their ancestors belonged to one region and from where they migrated to different parts of the world.

The Regional Continuity Model supports the view that modem humans originated at several regions across Africa, Asia and Europe. To support their view the scholars tried to correlate the anatomical differences of modern humans which indicate that they belonged to different regions.

Question 6. Write any two features of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis.
Answer: Two features of Homo heidelbergensis:

  • They had a smaller brain.
  • They had hairy growth on their body.

Two features of Homo neanderthalensis:

  • They had much larger head,
  • Their height was short.

Question 7. Explain the effects of changing environment around 12,000 years ago.
Answer: Around 12,000 years ago, there was a change in the climate of the world. There was an increase in the temperature of their environment. It resulted into the development of grasslands in many regions which in turn led to an increase in the number of animals that ate grass like deer, antelope, goat, sheep, cattle, etc.

Question 8. The tools of earlier humans were made of which materials. Which tools survived the most? Write its uses also.
Answer: Earlier humans used tools made of materials such as wood, stone and bones. The tools made of stones survived the most.
Uses of Stone Tools: These tools were used:

  • To cut meat.
  • To scrape barks of tree and skins of the animal.
  • To chop fruit, roots and wood.

Question 9. Discuss the difficulties faced by early men to get their food.
Answer: The early men were food-gatherers not food producers. They faced following difficulties in collecting food:

  • The danger of wild animals.
  • Tools to hunt the animals were not good in quality.
  • To hunt animals, they tend to be alert, quick and had a lot of presence of mind.
  • They were unable to find which season the fruit ripened.

Question 10. Where do we get the earliest evidence of planned hunting? What did it depict?
Answer: We get the earliest evidence of planned hunting from European site Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic. This site is nearby a river and it is believed that it was deliberately used by people. During the autumn and spring seasons reindeer and horse crossed the river and killed or hunted by early human on a large scale. The selection of such site depicted that the people were well aware about the movement of birds and animals and able to kill (hunt) them in large numbers.

Question 11. Trace the process of evolution of Homo habilis’s growth.
Answer: The fossils of Homo habilis are dated back to 2.2 mya to 1.8 mya. Their fossils have been found from Omo (Ethiopia) and Olduvali Gorge (Tanzania). The size of their brain was bigger and were considered more intelligent than Australopithecus. They were able to use their hands dexterously. They were the first to make tools of stone. Their tools helped a lot during their hunting expedition. Their mutual understanding during hunting expeditions led to the growth of language.

Question 12. How did the use of language prove advantageous in hunting expedition?
Answer: The use of language proved advantageous in hunting expedition in the following ways:

  • It helped men in organising hunting expeditions.
  • Now they became aware about the nature of animals and discussed how to hunt those particular animals.
  • They could collect information about the specific regions where these wild animals resided.
  • They could share information regarding tools meant-especially for hunting expedition.

Question 13. How did the use of language prove valuable in the construction of shelters?
Answer: The use of language proved helpful in the construction of shelters in following ways:

  • People could now secure places about their settlement.
  • They became aware about resources available in near surroundings.
  • They could discuss the ways of pattern of constructing their shelters.
  • They could consider the ways and means to protect their shelters from predators and severe storms..

Question 14. What do you know about cave paintings at Altamira?
Answer: Altamira is a cave site in Spain. The paintings on the ceiling of the caves were first brought into notice of an amateur archaeologist Marcelino sanz de Sautuola and his daughter Maria in November 1879. Maria suddenly noticed the paintings on ceiling when his father was busy in digging the floor of the cave. She brought these paintings to the notice of his father. At first looking of the picture of oxen, he just laughed, but soon he realised that some sort of paste rather than the paint has been used for painting. Two decades later, his findings were dismissed by European archaeologists on the ground that they did not appear too good to be very old.

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