NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents

Question 1.
What do you mean by the ‘Augustan age’?
The ‘Augustan age’ meant the reign by Augustus from 27 BCE to 14 CE. His reign is remembered for peace.

Question 2.
What were the great urban centers that lined the shores of the Mediterranean?
The great urban centers that lined the shores of the Mediterranean were Carthage, Alexandria and Antioch.

Question 3.
How was the jurisdiction system structured in Italy in the Roman Empire?
In the Roman empire there was an urban center with its own magistrates, city council and a ‘territory’ containing villages which were under its jurisdiction.

Question 4.
Who were the main players in the political history of the empire?
The emperor, the aristocracy and the army were the three main players in the political history of the empire.

Question 5.
Who was Tiberius?
Tiberius was the second in the long line of Roman Emperors. His span of rule remained from 14 GE to 37 CE. He was the adopted son of Augustus.

Question 6.
How many emperors ruled in the third century of Rome?
Twenty-five emperors ruled in the third century of Rome.

Question 7.
Which type of family was in Roman society?
In Roman society there was nuclear form of family.

Question 8.
What was the position of slaves in Roman society in the third century?
Slaves were included in the family in Roman society.

Question 9.
What was the legal right of property of women after marriage in Roman society in the third century?
The wife did not transfer to her husband’s authority but retained full rights in the property of her natal

Question 10.
How had the marriages been solemnized in Roman society in the third century?
Marriages were generally arranged. Women were subject to domination by their husbands.

Question 11.
Who was Augustine?
Augustine was the great Catholic bishop who spent most of his life in North Africa.

Question 12.
What was the status of father in Roman families?
Father had substantial legal control over their children.

Question 13.
Which languages had been used for writing and reading in Rome during third century?
Coptic was spoken in Egypt, Punic and Berber in North Africa, Celtic in Spain and the north-west.

Question 14.
Which language had been used for translation of the Bible?
Coptic was used for translation of the Bible by the middle of the third century.

Question 15.
What were Amphorae?
Liquids like wine and olive oil transported in containers were called ‘Amphorae’.

Question 16.
What was Dressel 20 in Spain?
The Spanish olive oil of the middle of the third century was mainly carried in a container that was called ‘Dressel 20.

Question 17.
Which countries had been exporters of wine and olive oil in the later fifth and sixth centuries?
In the later fifth and sixth centuries, the Southern Asia Minor (Turkey), Syria and Palestine became major exporters of wine and olive oil.

Question 18.
What was exported to Rome by Sicily and Byzacium?
Sicily and Byzacium exported large quantities of wheat to Rome.

Question 19.
Which kind of currencies were used in the monetary system of the first three centuries in Rome?
Silver and gold based currencies were used in the monetary system of the first three centuries in Rome.

Question 20.
What does ‘Late antiquity’ mean?
‘Late antiquity’ is the term used to describe the final and attractive period in the evolution and break-up of the Roman empire.

Question 21.
What was the traditional religious culture of the classical world, for both Greek and Roman?
The traditional religious culture of the classical world for both Greek and Roman had been Polytheism.

Question 22.
What does Frankincense mean?
Frankincense is the European name for an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes.

Question 23.
Who was Diocletian?
Diocletian was an emperor who ruled from 284-305 in the fourth century.

Question 24.
What was the system of income in early fifth century in Rome?
Many of the Roman households received an income of four thousand pounds of gold per year from their

Question 25.
Who was Olympiodorus?
Olympiodorus was a writer, an historian and an ambassador in the early fifth century.

Question 26.
What did Emperor Anastasius build in the late-fifth-century?
The Emperor Anastasius built the eastern frontier city of Dara in less than three weeks by attracting labor from all over the East by offering high wages in the late-fifth- century.

Question 27.
What was Papyrus?
The ‘Papyrus’ was a reed-like plant that grew along the bank of the river Nile in Egypt and was processed to
produce a writing material that is paper.

Question 28.
What were the textual sources used for?
Textual sources include histories of the period written by contemporaries. These were usually called ‘Annals.

Question 29.
Tell the name of two phases of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire can broadly be divided into two phases, i.e. Early Empire and Late Empire.

Question 30.
What were the dynasties that ruled Iran in the third century?
The Parthians and later the Sasanians ruled Iran in the third century.

Question 31.
What does the ‘civil war’ refer to?
Civil war refers to armed struggles for power within the same country.

Question 32.
What was ‘Denarius’?
The Denarius was a Roman silver coin containing about 4 y gm of pure silver.

Question 33.
How had Emperor Gallienus ruled?
The Emperor Gallienus (253-68) consolidated their rise to power by excluding senators from military command and reorganized the army.

Question 34.
Which territory was covered by the Roman Empire?
The Roman Empire covered most of Europe and a large part of the fertile crescent and North Africa.

Question 35.
What do documentary sources include?
Documentary sources include mainly inscriptions and papyrus.

Question 36.
Which area had been controlled by Iran?
Iran controlled the whole area including south of the Caspian Sea down to eastern Arabia and sometimes large parts of Afghanistan also.

Question 37.
What was the role of army in Roman empire?
The army was the largest single organized body of around 60,000 forces by the fourth century and it certainly had the power to determine the fate of emperors in Roman empire.

Question 38.
What is the history of Byzantium?
Byzantium was the creation of a second capital at Constantinople. It is at the site of modern Istanbul in Turkey which is surrounded on three sides by the sea.

Question 39.
Write about literacy rate in the Roman Empire.
It is certain that rate of literacy was casual and varied greatly between different parts of the empire. Literacy
was widespread among certain categories such as soldiers, army officers and estate managers.

Question 40.
What do you mean by ‘Principate’?
The regime established by Augustus, the first Emperor, in 27 BCE was called the ‘Principate’.

Question 41.
What was the fiction kept alive about Augustus?
Augustus was the sole ruler and the only real source of authority. The fiction was that he was only the ‘leading citizen’ not the absolute ruler.

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