Soil Science most important questions for competitive exams

Soil Science most important questions for competitive exams

  1. The readily available form of K in soil ranges from

(a) 0.1 – 2.0%

(b) 1 – 10%

(c) 30 – 40%

(d) 90 – 98%

  1. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of mica is

(a) 0

(b) 30 – 50

(c) 80 – 100

(d) 150

  1. Sulphur soil testing is determined by using

(a) CaCl2

(b) Hot water

(c) NH,OAC

(d) NaHCO,

  1. Grass tetany is caused by deficiency of in forage crops

(a) Mg

(b) S

(c) Ca

(d) Mn

  1. Which one of the following is an example of natural chelate ?

(a) EDTA

(b) DTPA

(c) Citric acid

(d) Oxalic acid

  1. Which method is applied for testing of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn ?




(d) DTPA

  1. Which one of the following is not a Mn mineral?

(a) Pyrolusite

(b) Hausmanite

(c) Rhodonite

(d) Tenorite

  1. Which element is the only non metal among the micronutrients ?

(a) Manganese

(b) Boron

(c) Iron

(d) Zinc

  1. Molybdenosis, a disease in cattle, is caused by an imbalance of Mo and Cu in the diet, when Mo content of the forage is greater than …….

(a) 5 ppm

(b) 10 ppm

(c) 15 ppm

(d) 20 ppm

  1. Calcium hydroxide has a neutralizing value (calcium carbonate equivalent) of

(a) 179%

(b) 136 %

(c) 109 %

(d) 100 %

11……… toxicity is probably the important growth limiting factor in acid soils, particularly when pH < 5.0 to 5.5

(a) Fe

(b) H+

(c) Al

(d) Mn

  1. Lime recommendation is made on the basis of a inch furrow slice

(a) 2

(b) 4

(c) 6

(d) 15

  1. Which of the following soils have poor physical condition ?

(a) Saline

(b) Sodic

(c) Saline – alkali

(d) None

14………….. refers to a condition in which a crop needs more of a given nutrient yet has shown no deficiency symptom

(a) Bare economic optimum

(b) Luxury consumption

(c) Hidden hunger

(d) Toxicity of nutrient

  1. In sugarcane, which leaf is most appropriate for total tissue test

(a) The second leaf from the top of the plant

(b) The third leaf from the top of the plant

(c) Fully mature leaves midway between the younger centre leaves and the oldest leaf whorl on the outside

(d) Fourth fully developed leaf from the top

  1. Which part of cotton plant is used for tissue test?

(a) All the above ground portion

(b) The youngest fully mature leaves of the main stem

(c) Fourth fully developed leaf from the top

(d) The four upper leaf blades

  1. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) is applicable for

(a) Long duration crops

(b) Short duration crops

(c) Oilseed crops

(d) Vegetables

  1. Crop logging developed by CF Clement is carried out for sugarcane in

(a) Brazil

(b) Hawai

(c) New Zealand

(d) Cuba

  1. In crop logging, during growing season, plant tissue is sampled every days and analysed for N, sugar, moisture and weight of the young sheath tissue

(a) 15

(b) 25

(c) 35

(d) 45

  1. is the ratio of the increase in osmotic pressure produced by the fertilizer to that produced by the same weight of sodium nitrate (NaNO3).

(a) Osmotic pressure

(b) Nutrient index

(c) Sodium index

(d) Salt index

  1. From top 25% of effective root zone depth, how much quantity of total water extraction take place by roots

(a) 10%

(b) 20%

(c) 30%

(d) 40 %

  1. Weight of grain per bushel in corn is

(a) 50 lb

(c) 60 lb

(b) 56 lb

(d) 48 lb

  1. Who considered the father of pedology?

(a) CG Hopkins

(b) JB Lawes

(c) VV Dokuchaev

(d) Liebig

  1. Who consider the various soils in relation to plant production properties of

(a) Agronomists

(b) Edaphologists Soil chemists

(c) Pedologist

  1. Unconsolidated material is known as overlying rocks

(a) Solum

(b) Regolith

(d) A horizon

(c) Bed rocks

  1. Vertical section of a soil is known as

(a) Horizons

(b) Solum

(c) Profile

(d) A soil

  1. The solum is comprised of

(a) A, B and E horizons

(b) A and B horizons

(c) A, B and C horizons

(d) A + regolith

  1. The organic soils commonly contain than 50% organic matter by volume and at least…….. by weight basis more

(a) 20 %

(b) 30%
(c) 40 %

(d) 58 %

  1. Among primary minerals, most resistant to weathering is

(a) Quartz

(b) Olivine

(c) Albite

(d) Gypsum

  1. Least resistant mineral to weathering is

(a) Quartz

(b) Olivine

(c) Geothite

(d) Anorthite

  1. Which of the followings is a secondary mineral?

(a) Muscovite

(b) Anorthite

(c) Dolomite

(d) Biotite

  1. Inorganic parent material transported by gravity is

(a) Glacial

(b) Eolian

(c) Marine

(d) Colluvial

  1. Wind blown materials, comprised primarily of silt with some fine sand and clay, are called

(a) Eolian

(b) Loess

(c) Moraine

(d) Alluvial

  1. Passive factor of soil formation includes

(a) Climate

(b) Organisms

(c) Parent material

(d) None

  1. Which soil order derived from volcanic
    ejecta and dominated by allophane or Al-humic complexes?

(a) Histosols

(c) Ultisols

(b) Andisols

(d) Alfisols

  1. Lowest category of soil classification includes

(a) Order

(c) Series

(b) Great group

(d) Family

  1. A clay soil must contain at least……… clay separate, to be designated a clay

(a) 70%

(c) 40%

(b) 80%

(d) 35%

  1. Which type of structure is dominant in grasslands?

(a) Spheroidal

(b) Platy

(c) Columnar

(d) Blocky

  1. Per cent pore space can be calculated by using of which formula

(a) % PS = 100 – (D/D, 100)

(b) % PS 100 (D/D, 100)

(c) % PS = 1 – (D/D x 100)

(d) % PS (Dp/Dp* 100)

  1. Which one of the following water potential in soil is always positive?

(a) Osmotic potential

(b) Matric potential

(c) Gravitational potential

(d) None of these

  1. In neutron moisture meter, source of fast neutrons

(a) Radium

(b) Americium – beryllium

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

  1. How much quantity of total incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the soil and can be used to warm it ?

(a) 10%

(c) 42%

(b) 20%

(d) 50%

  1. The external surface area of 1 g of colloidal clay is at least….. times that of 1 g of coarse sand

(a) 10

(b) 100

(c) 1000

(d) 10000

  1. Magnesium in octahedral sheet of clay mineral indicates

(a) Dioctahedral

(b) Trioctahedral

(c) Tetrahedral

(d) Monohedral

  1. Aluminium in octahedral sheet of clay mineral indicates

(a) Dioctahedral

(b) Trioctahedral

(c) Tetrahedral

(d) Monohedral

  1. Pressure membrane apparatus is used to measure matric potential moisture content relations at potential values as low as

(b) 10 bar

(d) 1000 bar

(a) 1 bar

(c) 100 bar

  1. Availability of which micronutrient increases with increase in soil pH

(a) B

(b) Fe

(c) Zn

(d) Mo 158.

  1. Which lime is referred to as burned lime or quick lime ?

(a) CaO

(b) Ca(OH)2

(c) CaMg(CO3)2

(d) CaCO3

  1. ‘White alkali’ soils are

(a) Acid soil

(b) Saline soil

(c) Saline sodic soil

(d) Sodic soil

  1. Which group of microorganisms have highest biomass in soil ?

(a) Bacteria

(b) Actinomycetes

(c) Fungi

(d) Algae

  1. Humus fraction lightest in colour is

(a) Fulvic acid

(c) Humin acid

(b) Humic acid

(d) None of these

  1. In agricultural soils, … of the total nitrogen is found as fixed ammonium ion

(a) 5%

(c) 20%

(b) 10%

(d) 40%

  1. Zinc sulfate monohydrate contains Zn %

(a) 19

(b) 54

(c) 21

(d) 35

  1. Boron content in borax (suhaga) is

(a) 11%

(c) 19%

(b) 25%

(d) 39%

  1. The soil erodibility factor (K) indicates the inherent erodibility of a soil gives an indication of the soil loss from a unit plot ….. m long with a 9% slope under continuous fallow culture

(a) 22

(b) 40

(d) 72

(c) 62

  1. Land capability class restricted to recreation, wildlife, water supply, or aesthetic purposes is

(a) I

(c) VII

(b) VI

(d) VIII

  1. A sequence of soils of about the same age, derived from similar parent material, and occurring under similar climatic conditions, but having different characteristic due to variation in relief and drainage is called

(a) Ca* clays

(b) Catena

(c) Truncated profile

(d) Caliche

  1. Soft and unconsolidated calcium carbonate, usually mixed with varying amounts of clay or other impurities isbdescribed as

(a) Mar

(b) Marl

(c) Mor

(d) Mull

  1. The smallest volume that can be calledb’a soil’ is

(a) Pedon

(c) Radon

(b) Ped

(d) Pans

  1. Soils have no diagnostic pedogenic horizons are included in soil order

(a) Histosols

(b) Mollisols

(d) Entisols

(c) Ultisols

  1. The microrelief of soils produced by expansion and contraction with changes in moisture is known as

(a) Fluvial deposits

(b) Gilgai

(c) Mottling

(d) Heaving

  1. Flame photometer is used in the determination of

(a) Nitrogen

(c) Potassium

(b) Phosphorus

(d) Boron

  1. The extractant used for available phosphorus in soils is

(a) Alkaline permangnate

(b) 0.5 M NaHCO3

(c) NN Ammonium acetate

(d) N Acetic acid

  1. Soils having 200 kg available K,O/ha will be classed as

(a) Low

(b) Medium

(c) High

(d) None of these

  1. Sugarbeet is an indicator plant for

(a) Phosphorus

(b) Boron

(c) Magnesium

(d) Sodium

66.On the functional basis Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu have been classified as

(a) Main structural elements

(b) Accessory structural elements

(c) Regulators and carriers

(d) Catalyst and activators

  1. In Mitscherlich technique are grown to maturity

(a) Barley

(b) Oat

(c) Wheat

(d) Sunflower

  1. Calcium cynamide contains nitrogen (%)

(a) 16

(b) 21

(c) 26

(d) 33

  1. Which of the following oil cakes, in addition to its manurial value, also acts as a nitrification inhibitor?

(a) Mustard

(b) Groundnut

(c) Neem

(d) Sesame

  1. The term functional or metabolic nutrient was given by

(a) JV Liebig

(b) DJ Nicholas

(c) DI Arnon

(d) None

  1. Science dealing with the origin formation of soil from the unconsolidated or parent material with special reference to factors and process of soil formation is known as

(a) Soil science

(b) Pedology

(c) Soil genesis

(d) Edaphology

  1. Rocks formed by solidification of molten inagma at the surface of the earth are called

(a) Sedimentary

(b) Metamorphic

(d) None

(c) Igneous

  1. The rate of weathering is generally high in

(a) Arid tropical climate

(b) Arid temperate climate

(c) Humid tropical climate

(d) Humid temperate climate

  1. The dominant spectral colour in soil indicates

(a) Hue

(b) Value

(c) Chroma

(d) Organic matter

  1. The pH of the soil solution determines

(a) Active acidity

(b) Exchange acidity

(c) Total acidity

(d) None

  1. The major source of negative charge on humus colloids is due to

(a) Carboxylic (-COOH) groups

(b) Enolic (-OH) groups

(c) Phenolic groups

(d) All of these

  1. The value of ESP in alkali soils is always

(a) Greater than 15

(b) Less than 15

(c) Any value

(d) None

  1. Most dominant mineral in earth

(a) Feldspar crust

(c) Quartz

(b) Amphiboles

(d) Mica

  1. Munsell colour chart contains about different coloured papers or chips

(a) 100

(b) 125

(c) 150

(d) 175

  1. A mature and dry plant tissue contain about………. proteins (%)

(a) 20 – 50

(b) 1-15

(c) 1-8

(d) 10 – 30

  1. The moisture equivalent by was introduced

(a) Briggs and McLane (1907)

(b) Richards and Weaver (1944)

(c) Shaw and Baver (1939)

(d) Whitney

  1. Which type of soil survey use the lowest categories of taxonomic and mapping units, i.e. types and phases ?

(a) Detailed survey

(b) Reconnaissance survey

(c) Detailed reconnaissance survey

(d) None

  1. Fluor apatite is a rich source of

(a) Nitrogen

(c) Potassium

(b) Phosphorus

(d) Molybdenum

  1. Fe concentration used for foliar spray is

(a) 0.2%

(c) 0.05%

(b) 0.4%

(d) 1.0%

  1. Equivalent acidity of anhydrous ammonia is

(a) 148

(c) 110

(b) 128

(d) 93

  1. Molybdate reagent is used for estimation of

(a) N

(c) Ca

(b) P

(d) B

  1. Who developed method for estimation of lime requirement ?

(a) Sckooner (1952)

(b) Shoemaker et al. (1961)

(c) Stanford and English (1949)

(d) Olsen et al. (1954)

  1. Indicator plant of copper is

(a) Maize

(b) Wheat

(c) Sorghum

(d) Potato

  1. Aspergillus niger is used to test the of which element in the soil

(a) N

(c) K

(b) P

(d) Fe

  1. Mehlich’s cunninghamella plague method

is used to test

(a) N

(b) P

(c) Mn

(d) Zn

  1. Which science assumes the status of petrology, pedography and pedogenesis?

(a) Soil Science

(b) Edaphology

(c) Pedology

(d) Petrology

  1. 2:1:1 type of clay mineral contain an extra sheet of ….. as compared to 2 : 1 type of clay minerals.

(a) Gibbsite

(b) Pyroxenes

(c) Brucite

(d) Biotite

  1. Chemical formula of siderite is

(a) CaCO3

(b) Fe,O,

(c) Ca, (PO4)3

(d) FeCO,

  1. The peeling off the plates from parent rock due to differential expansion and contraction of minerals as a result of changes in temperature, is called as

(a) Meander

(c) Illuviation

(b) Exfoliation

(d) Moraine

  1. The term catena (a Latin word means a chain) was introduced by

(a) Milne (1935)

(b) Schofield (1935)

(c) Mulder (1909)

(d) Richard (1950)

  1. Select the correct sequence of weathering stages in soil formation

(a) Juvenile initial virile – senile final

(b) Senile virile – juvenile initial final

(c) Initial juvenile -virile senilefinal

(d) Initial – virile – juvenile – senile – final

  1. Silica: sesquioxide (R,O,) ratio for tropical ecoregion is

(a) > 3.5

(b) 3 to 3.5

(c) 2 to 3

(d) <2

  1. Hydromorphic soils are evolved by which process

(a) Calcification

(b) Gleization

(c) Salinization

(d) Solonization

  1. Solodization refers to the removal of from the exchange sites

(a) Ca++

(b) Mg++

(c) Na+

(d) NaCl

  1. Pedoturbation is the process of..

(a) Mixing of the soil

(b) Mixing of FYM in soil

(c) Mixing of fertilizer in the soil

(d) Mixing of pesticides

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